Linux is a Unix-like operating system, and it organizes its file system using directories (folders) to help users and system administrators manage files and programs efficiently. Here are some of the commonly used directories in a standard Linux file system, typically following the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS):
1./ (Root Directory): The root directory is the top-level directory in the Linux file system. It contains all other directories and files. In Linux, the root directory is represented by a forward slash (/).
2./bin (Binary): This directory contains essential binary executables that are required for system boot and repair, such as system utilities like ls, cp, and mv.
3./boot: The /boot directory contains the files necessary for the Linux kernel to boot, including the kernel itself and bootloader configuration files.
4./etc (Etcetera): System-wide configuration files and shell scripts are stored in /etc. It contains important system configuration files like /etc/passwd, /etc/fstab, and /etc/network.
5./home: User home directories are located under /home. Each user typically has their own subdirectory here, where they store their personal files and configuration files.
6./lib (Library): The /lib directory contains shared libraries needed for the system and other executables in /bin and /sbin to run.
7./media: This directory is used for mounting removable media, such as USB drives and optical discs. Mount points for these devices are often created here.
8./mnt (Mount): Similar to /media, the /mnt directory is used for mounting file systems or devices temporarily.
9./opt (Optional): Third-party software packages may be installed in /opt. It’s often used for software that doesn’t follow the standard file structure.
10./proc (Process): The /proc directory contains information about running processes and system configuration in a virtual file system.
11./root: This is the home directory for the system’s superuser, often referred to as the “root user.”
12./run: This directory contains temporary runtime files and data that are volatile and may be recreated on each boot.
13./sbin (System Binary): Essential system binaries that are generally used by the root user for system maintenance and recovery are stored here.
14./srv (Service): This directory is used for data and files associated with services provided by the system. It’s commonly used in web server configurations.
15./sys (Sysfs): The /sys directory provides access to the kernel’s runtime configuration and statistics.
16./tmp (Temporary): Temporary files and directories that are meant to be used by applications and users for short-term storage are stored here. The contents of /tmp are typically deleted on system reboot.
17./usr (User): This directory contains user-related programs, libraries, and data files. It’s often mounted as a separate file system.
18./var (Variable): Variable data, including log files, mail, print spools, and other files that may change in size or content, are stored in /var.
These are some of the fundamental directories in a typical Linux file system. The specific structure may vary between different Linux distributions, but the core directories usually remain consistent to maintain compatibility and adhere to system standards.